- MS in Mathematical Physics at “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy

- Ph.D. in Neuroscience at the Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies (ITAB), “G. D’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy.

Academic career and teaching activities

2005: Post Doc, University G. D’annunzio (Chieti-Pescara)

2007: Senior Researcher, Helsinki University of Technology (now Aalto University), Finland

2010: Senior Researcher, MEG Center Tuebingen (Germany)

2012: Senior Researcher, Functional Neurosurgery, University of Tuebingen

2015: Senior Researcher, Neurology, University of Tuebingen

2020: Assistant Professor, CIMeC, University of Trento (Italy)

2023: Assistant Professor, CIMeC, University of Trento (Italy)

Research interests

Paolo Belardinelli is interested in understanding how brain responses to an external stimulus are differentially affected by ongoing brain states.

He is also interested in understanding how plasticity can be modulated in an optimal way by applying brain state-dependent, closed loop real time network modulation.

To this aim, he performs non-invasive brain stimulation (EEG-TMS: TMS triggered by EEG states) in healthy and pathological adult brains.

In recent years, thanks to manufacturing of dedicated hardware, remarkable progresses have been made in the effective use of this methodology.

However, some major issues need to be addressed in order to achieve a profound understanding of the mechanisms of action of brain state-dependent stimulation.

First, a deeper insight of the relationship between anatomy and function needs to be undertaken.

This will allow us to ground the neurophysiological mechanisms to the anatomy of cortex in future researches in this field.

Second, the definition of what represents a “brain state” suitable for stimulation presents several technical and neuroscientific issues.

My aim is to systematically study how the state of a brain network right before the stimulus influences the both peripheral (muscles) and cortical outcomes.

The final goal of this research line is represented by a new real-time application of EEG-TMS, for understanding the main brain functions and for improving the outcomes of restorative and rehabilitative approaches in patients with Stroke or psychiatric diseases.

Keywords: neuroscience; neuroplasticity; connectivity; human neurophysiology; electrophysiology - EEG; non-invasive/transcranial magnetic stimulation – Real-Time EEG-TMS; MEG; multimodal imaging

Research work

Paolo Belardinelli’s main expertise is the analysis of EEG-MEG signals at source level and the combination of them with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to modulate activity of functional networks in the human brain. He has extensive experience in the development and application of EEG-TMS paradigms, with a focus on the sensorimotor network. He has also interest in combining information from multiple neuroimaging methodologies (EEG, EMG, TMS, MRI), to integrate information from structure and function.

Memberships in societies and scientific committees

Guest Associate Editor

● Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2020-Present; ● Cognitive Processing 2016-Present.

Editorial Board (present)

2018 – present Editorial Board: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Frontiers
2016 – present Editorial Board: Frontiers in Neurology - Frontiers
2012 – present Editorial Board: Cognitive Processing - Springer



Awards and honours

Grants won as a PI:

Title: The modulatory effect of performance rate on brain motor network functional connectivity. 35000 € from CIN, Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tübingen, Germany.

Title: Mapping human brain functions: optimized Bayesian filters for source localization. 37000 € from CIN, Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tübingen, Germany.

Title: Bayesian Models for Source reconstruction. 24000 € from Jan and Antti Wihuri Foundation, Finland.

Title: MEG and EEG Functional Connectivity. 10000 € from Regione Abruzzo, Italy.

    Title: MEG Brain Activity Reconstruction. 12000 € from “La Sapienza”, Italy.

Conferences and lectures


Author or co-author of more than 80 abstracts, presentations at Congresses / Symposia / Seminars / Workshops / Schools.

see CV

Invited Talks:

March 10th 2021: DGKN 8th Conference on Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: Title: Analysis and interpretation of TMS-evoked EEG potentials” invited by Prof. U. Ziemann (University of Tuebingen, Germany).

November 11th 2020: DGKN 7th Conference on Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: Title: “Real-time source EEG phase triggered TMS: methods and results” invited by Dr. C. Zrenner (University of Tuebingen, Germany).

September 8th 2017: Göttingen, 6th International Conference on Transcranial Brain Stimulation: Title: “Real-time source and sensor-level EEG state triggered TMS with millisecond resolution” invited by Dr. R. Polania (University of Zürich, Switzerland).

September 5th 2013: Tübingen, Department of Computer Science: Title: “Neural correlates of the motor act of grasping” invited by Prof. M. Butz (University of Tübingen, Germany).

November 4-7th 2012: Asilomar, California: Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers. Title: “New Perspectives in MEG Functional Connectivity” invited by Prof. H. Preissl (University of Tübingen, Germany).

May 2012: Frankfurt, MEG Center: “Bayesian Methods for M/EEG Source Localization” invited by Prof. M. Wibral (Max Planck Institute, Frankfurt, Germany).

April 2011: University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy. Title: ”MEG and the New Perspectives for Brain Imaging Non-invasive Techniques” invited by Prof. A. M. Proverbio (Department of Psychology, University of Bicocca, Milan, Italy).

March 2012: Tübingen, MEG Spring School for Neuroscience Title: “Brain Functional Connectivity Discovered by means of MEG Methods and Experiments” invited by Prof. C. Braun (CIN, Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Tübingen, Germany).

October 2010: Frankfurt, ESI, Title:”Cortico-cortical connectivity methods for electrophysiological Signals” invited by Prof. P. Fries, (ESI, Frankfurt, Germany).

June 2010: London, UCL, Title: “Bayesian Algorithms in SPM8: Methods and Accuracy” invited by Prof. K. Friston (University College London, UK).

September 2009: Frankfurt, MPI, Title: “Interaction of Brain Areas studied by means of algorithms for Chaotic Oscillators” invited by Prof. P. Ulhaas (Max Planck Institute Frankfurt, Germany, now University of Glasgow, UK).

February 2008: Glasgow, Title: “MEG Source Connectivity in Children with Early Acquired Brain Lesions” invited by Prof. J. Gross (University of Glasgow, UK).

October 2007: Hangzou, Title: “Abnormal Cerebro-cerebral Connectivity in Children with Early Brain Injuries” invited by Prof. K. Sekihara (University of Tokio, Japan).

September 2007: Title: “Methods for EEG and MEG Source Localization and Connectivity” Rovereto, invited by Prof. C. Braun (University of Trento, Italy).

September 2007: Helsinki, Title: “Insights from Granger Causality on Cortico-cortical Connectivity” invited by Prof. R. Salmelin (Aalto University, Finland).

September 2006: Chieti, ISBET International Society for Brain Electromagnetic Topography Title: “Cortico-cerebellar Coherence in Patients with Perinatally Aquired Brain Lesions” invited by Prof. Gian Luca Romani (“G. D’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy).

August 2006, Vancouver: BIOMAG Title: “Functional Connectivity in Patients with Perinatally Aquired Brain Lesions” invited by Prof M Hamalainen (MIT, Boston, USA).

June 2005: Tübingen, Title: “Coherence as a Tool for Functional Connectivity in EEG and MEG data” invited by Prof. N. Birbaumer (Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany).

May 2004: Zürich, Title: “Beamforming Methods for source Localization: an Overview” invited by Dr. R.D. Pascual Marqui (University of Zürich, Switzerland).

January 2002: L'Avana, Cuba. NAISO Congress on neuro fuzzy technologies, Title:”A Visual Segmentation Algorithm Applied to Quantum Dots” invited by the organizing committee.


Other work

2021-2022 Supervisor of PhD students: Martina Amerighi and Arianna Brancaccio

2021-22: Internal supervisor of the Master Theses of Prince Okyere and Elena Fenoglio

2021-2022: Supervisor of the “Tirocinio Post-Lauream” of Cecilia Comoli.